Health Benefits of Drinking iJuice Broccoli Sprouts


When drinking iJuice Broccoli Sprouts you are receiving powerful antioxidants of glucoraphanin and the enzyme myrosinase. The function of the myrosinase enzyme is to catalyze the hydrolysis of a class of compounds called glucosinolates. Glucoraphanin is a glucosinolate. Myrosinase transforms the glucoraphanin into sulforaphane, the active compound that exhibits anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties in experimental models.

Nature has designed myrosinase and its natural substrate, glucosinolate, to be part of the plant’s defense response. When the plant is attacked by pathogens, insects, or other herbivore, the plant uses myrosinase to convert glucosinolates, which are otherwise-benign, into toxic products like isothiocyanates, thiocyanates, and nitriles.

There are a number of plants in nature that use the myrosinase-glucosinolate defense system. They include:

Bok choy

Broccoli

Broccoli Sprouts

Cabbage

Cauliflower

Daikon (Raphanus sativus)

Daikon Sprouts

Garden cress (Lepidium sativum)

Kale

Rape seed (Brassica napus)

Wasabi (Wasabia japonica)

White mustard (Sinapis alba)

Yellow mustard (Brassica juncea)

In 1994, scientists discovered that three-to-four-day-old sprouted broccoli had 20 times the concentration of glucoraphanin than full grown broccoli. The iJuice Broccoli Sprouts is a 28 to 1 concentration of sprouts and a 28 to 1 concentration of glucoraphanin.

Specifically, there is 73 mg of glucoraphanin for broccoli sprouts versus v. 11 mg of glucoraphanin for broccoli per serving which is then concentrated at a 28 to 1 with iJuice Broccoli Sprouts. This results in one ounce or 1 gram of iJuice Broccoli Sprouts containing as much glucoraphanin as over 1.25 pounds (20 ounces) of broccoli.

The presence of myrosinase in the plant is needed to convert glucoraphanin into sulforaphane, otherwise glucoraphanin provides zero protective effects.

FigureX_GR Hydrolysis

The raw plant obviously contains the enzyme myrosinase. However, myrosinase will be denatured at high temperatures and thus lose its activity when cooked.

Cooking broccoli or other myrosinase/glucorphanin plants by boiling or microwave may destroy the myrosinase which is another good reason for drinking organic iJuice Broccoli Sprout juice.

Researchers compared boiled, microwaved and steamed broccoli, and found that steaming broccoli for up to five minutes was the best way to retain its myrosinase. Boiling and microwaving broccoli for one minute or less destroyed the majority of the enzyme, according to Elizabeth Jeffery, a researcher at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Broccoli sprouts or Daikon sprouts are often eaten raw or better drinking organic iJuice Broccoli Sprouts to receive the greatest concentration of the myrosinase enzyme.

An alternative to eating broccoli spouts is drinking the iJuice Broccoli Sprout mixed in alkaline water.

The safest way to insure that you are consuming glucorahanin and myrosinase together is to drink organic iJuice Broccoli Sprouts.

Sulforaphane

An article appeared in The British Journal of Nutrition in May 2012 written by Cramer JM, Teran-Garcia M, and Jeffery EH in which they used air-dried broccoli sprouts to provide the myrosinase enzyme in this study.

Their studies indicated that about 4/5 of the glucorophanine in the broccoli sprouts is converted into sulforaphane during eating and digestion because the sprouts contain active enzyme. Combining broccoli sprout powder with enzyme-empty broccoli powder allowed the enzymes from the sprouts to convert about half of the glucoraphanin in the inert powder into sulforaphane.

Only about one-fifth of the glucoraphanin was converted into sulforaphane when just broccoli powder was consumed.

The abstract of this important study follows:

“Sulforaphane (SF) is a chemopreventive isothiocyanate (ITC) derived from the myrosinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucoraphanin, a thioglucoside present in broccoli. Broccoli supplements often contain glucoraphanin but lack myrosinase, putting in question their ability to provide dietary SF. This study compared the relative absorption of SF from air-dried broccoli sprouts rich in myrosinase and a glucoraphanin-rich broccoli powder lacking myrosinase, individually and in combination. Subjects (n = 4) each consumed 4 meals consisting of dry cereal and yogurt with 2 g sprouts, 2 g powder, both, or neither. Blood and urine were analyzed for SF metabolites. The 24 h urinary SF recovery was 74%, 49%, and 19% of the dose ingested from broccoli sprouts, combination, and broccoli powder meals, respectively. Urinary and plasma ITC appearance was delayed from the broccoli powder compared to the sprouts and combination. A liver function panel indicated no toxicity from any treatment at 24 h. These data indicate a delayed appearance in plasma and urine of SF from the broccoli powder relative to SF from myrosinase-rich sprouts. Combining broccoli sprouts with the broccoli powder enhanced SF absorption from broccoli powder, offering the potential for development of foods that modify the health impact of broccoli products.” [1] [2]

The following table is a representation of the epidemiological evidence of cancer prevention from broccoli spouts.

Epidemiological Evidence of Cancer Prevention by Cruciferous Vegetables

Site of cancer

Amount of iJuice Broccoli Sprouts ingested

RR – relative risk OR-odds ratio (P value) Reference

Bladder

>5 servings/week RR 0.49 (0.008) Michaud et al. (1999)

Lymphoma

>5 servings/week RR 0.67 (0.03) Zhang et al. (2000)

Prostate

>5 servings/week OR 0.61 (0.006) Kolonel et al. (2000)

Prostate

>3 servings/week OR 0.50 (0.02) Cohen et al. (2000)

Colon (men)

Top 20% RR 0.76 (0.011) Voorips et al. (2000)

Colon (women)

Top 20% RR 0.51 (0.004) Voorips et al. (2000)

Breast

Top 25% OR 0.05 (0.01) Fowke et al. (2003)

Kidney

Top 25% OR 0.53 (0.001) Yuan et al. (1998)

Source: E.H. Jeffery, Phytochemical Review, 2008.

Health Benefits of Broccoli Sprouts (Sulforaphane)

Broccoli Sprouts (Sulforaphane)

Sulforaphane is a promising chemo preventive agent that exerts its effect by strong induction of phase 2 enzymes via activation of Nrf2

[3]

Cervical Cancer

Sulforaphane may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Cervical Cancer cells [4]

Leukemia

Sulforaphane may help to prevent Leukemia [5]

Liver Cancer

Sulforaphane may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Liver Cancer cells [6]

Lung Cancer

Sulforaphane may help to prevent Lung Cancer [7]

Melanoma

Sulforaphane may help to prevent Melanoma [8]

Mouth Cancer

Sulforaphane may help to prevent Mouth Cancer [9]

Ovarian Cancer

Sulforaphane may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Ovarian Cancer cells [10]

Pancreatic Cancer

Sulforaphane may help to prevent and treat Pancreatic Cancer [11]

Tongue Cancer

Sulforphane may help to prevent Tongue Cancer [12]

Helicobacter pylori

Broccoli Sprouts may facilitate the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. [13]

Inflammation

CUR + SFN and PEITC + SFN combinations could be more effective than used alone in preventing inflammation and possibly its associated diseases including cancer. [14]

Skin Tumors

Mice were exposed to damaging levels of UV light for 20 weeks in a study conducted at Johns Hopkins Medical School. Following the exposure, application of sulforaphane resulted in a 50% reduction in the number of mice with tumors. [15]

Breast Cancer

Study results revealed the women who had eaten higher levels of Brassica vegetables—broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and kale—all of which contain glucoraphanin and related compounds—were 50% less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer. [16]

Prostate Cancer

Human prostate cancer cells responded to treatment with sulforaphane in the form of broccoli sprout extracts, showing dramatic increases in their Phase 2 protective enzymes. [17]

Colon Cancer

Ability of sulforaphane and broccoli sprouts extracts to inhibit cancer in vitro in human colon cancer cells. [18]

Bladder Cancer

Studies have also shown sulforaphane and broccoli sprout extract can induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human bladder cancer cells in vitro. [19]

Stomach Cancer

Dual actions of sulforaphane in inhibiting Helicobacter infections and blocking gastric tumor formation offer hope that these mechanisms might function synergistically to provide diet-based protection against gastric cancer in humans [20]

Cardiovascular

Hypertension

Sulforaphane-induced Phase 2 enzymes from broccoli sprouts improved cardiovascular health by decreasing inflammation and improving heart, artery and kidney function. [21]

Stroke

Delayed administration (15 min) of a single dose of SUL significantly decreased cerebral infarct volume following focal ischemia. [22]

Metabolism

Cholesterol

Broccoli Sprouts may lower total serum Cholesterol levels. [23]

Glucose metabolism

Sulforaphane promotes lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation mediated by decreasing AMPK signal activation in adipocytes. [24]

Diabetes

Results suggest sulforaphane from broccoli may help reverse the damaging effects of diabetes-linked vascular disease. [25]

Eye/Vision

Macular Degeneration

Ability of sulforaphane to protect retinal pigment epithelial cells from damage by chemical carcinogens and by ultraviolet light. [26]

Musculo- Skeletal System

Arthritis

Sulforaphane may be useful for the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis. [27]

Detoxification

Phase II Enzyme inducer

Study identified sulforaphane as a very potent phase II enzyme inducer in brocooli and noted that sulforaphane induces both quinone reductase and glutathione transferase activities in several mouse tissues. [28]

Respiratory

Oral sulforaphane safely and effectively induces mucosal Phase II enzyme expression in the upper airway of human subjects. [29]

Carcinogens

Broccoli sprouts are an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. [30]

Nrf2 Activation

Activates a transcription factor, Nrf2 in the cell. [31]

Neurological Autism

Sulforaphane Shows Promise in Autism Spectrum Disorder [32]

References:

[1] Sulforaphane Absorption and Excretion Following Ingestion of a Semi-Purified Broccoli Powder Rich in Glucoraphanin and Broccoli Sprouts in Healthy Men

[2] Enhancing sulforaphane absorption and excretion in healthy men through the combined consumption of fresh broccoli sprouts and a glucoraphanin-rich powder.

[3] Hecht, S. S. Chemoprevention of cancer by isothiocyanates, modifiers of carcinogen metabolism. Journal of Nutrition. 129:768-774, 1999.

Misiewicz, I., et al. Sulforaphane and 2-oxohexyl isothiocyanate induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis in L-1210 leukemia and ME-18 melanoma cells. Oncol Rep. 10(6):2045-2050, 2003.

Nestle, M. Broccoli sprouts in cancer prevention. Nutrition Reviews. 46(4 Part I):127, 1998.

Thimmulappa, R. K., et al. Identification of Nrf2-regulated genes induced by the chemopreventive agent sulforaphane by oligonucleotide microarray. Cancer Research. 62(18):5196-5203, 2002.

Zhang, Y., et al. A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidations of structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 89:2399-2403, 1992.

[4] Park, S. Y., et al. Induction of apoptosis by isothiocyanate sulforaphane in human cervical carcinoma HeLa and hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells through activation of caspase-3. Oncol Rep. 18(1):181-187, 2007.

[5] Misiewicz, I., et al. Sulforaphane and 2-oxohexyl isothiocyanate induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis in L-1210 leukemia and ME-18 melanoma cells. Oncol Rep. 10(6):2045-2050, 2003.

[6] Park, S. Y., et al. Induction of apoptosis by isothiocyanate sulforaphane in human cervical carcinoma HeLa and hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells through activation of caspase-3. Oncol Rep. 18(1):181-187, 2007.

[7] Liang, H., et al. Sulforaphane induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in cultured human lung adenocarcinoma LTEP-A2 cells and retards growth of LTEP-A2 xenografts in vivo. Journal of Natural Products. 2008.

[8] Misiewicz, I., et al. Sulforaphane and 2-oxohexyl isothiocyanate induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis in L-1210 leukemia and ME-18 melanoma cells. Oncol Rep. 10(6):2045-2050, 2003.

[9] Kim, J. H., et al. Sulforaphane increases cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21 protein in human oral carcinoma cells and nude mouse animal model to induce G(2)/M cell cycle arrest. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 46(1):60-67, 2010.

[10]Bryant, C. S., et al. Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest by protecting RB-E2F-1 complex in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Mol Cancer. 9:47, 2010.

[11] Pham, N. A., et al. The dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphane targets pathways of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and oxidative stress in human pancreatic cancer cells and inhibits tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Mol Cancer Ther. 3(10):1239-1248, 2004.

[12] Yao, H., et al. Sulforaphane inhibited expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in human tongue squamous cancer cells and prostate cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2008.

[13] Galan, M. V., et al. Oral broccoli sprouts for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: a preliminary report. Dig Dis Sci. 49(7-8):1088-1090, 2004.

[14] Synergistic effect of combination of phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane or curcumin and sulforaphane in the inhibition of inflammation.

[15] Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 2005, 14(11).

Cancer Letters, 2006, 240:243–252.

Cancer Research, 2006, 66:8293–8296

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 2007, 104(44):17500-5.

[16] Sulforaphane: a naturally occurring mammary carcinoma mitotic inhibitor, which disrupts tubulin polymerization

[17] Potent Induction of Phase 2 Enzymes in Human Prostate Cells by Sulforaphane1

[18] Transcriptome Analysis of Human Colon Caco-2 Cells Exposed to Sulforaphane1,2,3

[19] Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Incidence of Bladder Cancer in a Male Prospective Cohort

[20] Fahey, J. W., t al. Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99(11):7610-7615, 2002.

[21] Dietary approach to attenuate oxidative stress, hypertension, and inflammation in the cardiovascular system

[22] Zhao, J., et al. Sulforaphane reduces infarct volume following focal cerebral ischemia in rodents. Neurosci Lett. 393(2-3):108-112, 2006.

[23] Murashima, M., et al. Phase 1 study of multiple biomarkers for metabolism and oxidative stress after one-week intake of broccoli sprouts. Biofactors. 22(1-4):271-275, 2004.

[24] Sulforaphane induced adipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation, regulated by AMPK signaling pathway.

[25] Nrf2 Activators as Attractive Therapeutics for Diabetic Nephropathy

[26] Induction of phase 2 genes by sulforaphane protects retinal pigment epithelial cells against photooxidative damage

[27] Kong, J. S., et al. Inhibition of synovial hyperplasia, rheumatoid T cell activation, and experimental arthritis in mice by sulforaphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate. Arthritis Rheum. 62(1):159-170, 2010.

[28] Prochaska, H. J., et al. Rapid detection of inducers of enzymes that protect against carcinogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 89:2394-2398, 1992.

·Zhang, Y., et al. A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidations of structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 89:2399-2403, 1992.

[29] Riedl, M. A., et al. Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway. Clinical Immunology. 130(3):244-251, 2009.

[30] Broccoli sprouts as inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme systems: Clinical, dietary, and policy implications

[31] http://dspace.biblioteca-innsz.org/bitstream/handle/123456789/12876/896D.pdf?sequence=1

[32] Sulforaphane Shows Promise in Autism Spectrum Disorder

#BroccoliSprouts #Sprouts #Glucoraphanin #Myrosinase

Featured Posts
Recent Posts
Archive
Search By Tags
No tags yet.
Follow Us
  • Facebook Basic Square
  • Twitter Basic Square
  • Google+ Basic Square